HIPAA is a USA based statute that came into law in 1996. It is a compound act that targets two main areas related to healthcare. These are known as Titles. Title I of the Act is related to employee based health insurance provision. It enables the transfer and continuing health insurance coverage for workers, and their families, if they change or lose their jobs.

Title II covers guidelines and policies that are designed to protect confidential medical records from misuse. This includes electronic medical records and associated clinical data.  It mandates standards for health care information on electronic billing and other processes, and requires the protection and confidential handling of protected health information so that it cannot be seen by anyone not authorised to access it.